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Turboshaft Components of a simple centrifugal compressor[ edit ] A simple centrifugal compressor has four components: As a result of the impeller rotating clockwise when looking downstream into the compressor, the flow will pass through the volute's discharge cone moving away from the figure's viewer.
All of these additional devices have important uses in the control of the centrifugal compressor. Centrifugal impeller[ edit ] The key component that makes a compressor centrifugal is the centrifugal impeller, Figure 0. This is identical to an axial compressor with the exception that the gases can reach higher velocities and energy levels through the impeller's increasing radius.
In many modern high-efficiency centrifugal compressors the gas exiting the impeller is traveling near the speed of sound. Most modern high efficiency impellers use "backsweep" in the blade shape. Diffuser[ edit ] The next key component to the simple centrifugal compressor is the diffuser.
Diffusers can be vaneless, vaned or an alternating combination. High efficiency vaned diffusers are also designed over a wide range of solidities from less than 1 to over 4.
Hybrid versions of vaned diffusers include: Some turbochargers have no diffuser. Collector[ edit ] The collector of a centrifugal compressor can take many shapes and forms. When the diffuser discharges into a device that looks somewhat like a snail shell, bull's horn or a French horn, the collector is likely to be termed a volute or scroll.
Either the collector or the pipe may also contain valves and instrumentation to control the compressor. Applications[ edit ] Below, is a partial list of centrifugal compressor applications each with a brief description of some of the general characteristics possessed by those compressors.
To start this list two of the most well-known centrifugal compressor applications are listed; gas turbines and turbochargers. In gas turbines and auxiliary power units. The types of gas turbines that most often include centrifugal compressors include small aircraft engines ie turboshafts, turboprops and turbofansauxiliary power units, and micro-turbines.
The industry standards applied to all of the centrifugal compressors used in aircraft applications are set by the FAA and the military to maximize both safety and durability under severe conditions. Centrifugal impellers used in gas turbines are commonly made from titanium alloy forgings.
Their flow-path blades are commonly flank milled or point milled on 5-axis milling machines. When tolerances and clearances are the tightest, these designs are completed as hot operational geometry and deflected back into the cold geometry as required for manufacturing. In automotive engine and diesel engine turbochargers and superchargers.
Standards set by the industry for turbochargers may have been established by SAE. In pipeline compressors of natural gas to move the gas from the production site to the consumer. The impellers are often if not always of the covered style which makes them look much like pump impellers. This type of compressor is also often termed an API-style.
The power needed to drive these compressors is most often in the thousands of horsepower HP. Use of real gas properties is needed to properly design, test and analyze the performance of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors.
In oil refineriesnatural-gas processingpetrochemical and chemical plants. Their casings are often termed horizontally split or barrel.
This type of compressor is also often termed API-style. The power needed to drive these compressors is most often in the thousands of HP. Use of real gas properties is needed to properly design, test and analyze their performance.
Air-conditioning and refrigeration and HVAC: Centrifugal compressors quite often supply the compression in water chillers cycles. Use of real gas properties is needed to properly design, test and analyze the performance of these machines.
In industry and manufacturing to supply compressed air for all types of pneumatic tools. Inter-cooling is often needed between stages to control air temperature. Note that the road repair crew and the local automobile repair garage find screw compressors better adapt to their needs.
Standards set by the industry for these compressors include ASME and government regulations that emphasize safety. Ideal gas relationships are often used to properly design, test and analyze the performance of these machines.
In air separation plants to manufacture purified end product gases.What are the pros and cons of job analysis? negative aspects of an idea, process, or thing, and is often used to clarify or decide whether that idea, process.
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