Beware of translation errors. Seeing though blind Source text Dutch!
The only important group of organized settlers in those years was a colony of two hundred people who founded what is now Germantown, in the year Most of these settlers were Quakers who had come over in response to the appeal of William Penn.
To win immigrants, Penn, whose mother was Dutch, had paid three visits to Holland, and published several pamphlets there which were translated into Dutch. Only then did German immigration gain momentum, and soon dominated the area.
Germantown is now a suburb of Philadelphia and has a population of one hundred thousand. The distinction of Germantown and of its settlers is the declaration which was issued there on February 18, In it the leading local citizens put themselves on record as protesting against slavery.
That statement was the first of its kind in America. At this point it is necessary to mention a common misunderstanding.
Dutch is the language of Holland. The original settlers of New Netherland continued to play an important role in the colony. In New York they dominated social life, and they became prominent in business paradoxically, after they had been released by British rule from the bonds of the Dutch West India Company.
Under the Regulations of England had promised not to interfere with the Dutch Reformed Church, but when it failed to live up to that promise many Dutch families moved from New York to New Jersey to exchange New York rule for the more liberal one across the Hudson. A migration to the Raritan Valley, in particular, was caused by an early 18th-century attempt to force the Anglican Church upon the Dutch.
Other Reformed Dutch farmers left for St. James Island, South Carolina, in two shiploads, and this migration is still traceable in the Dutch family names of that region.
Nevertheless, at the end of the British period, out of a hundred thousand people of Dutch origin in the colonies, 85, still lived within the boundaries of former New Netherland. Ten years later English was introduced in the schools.
In Kingston, Dutch was used in church as late as Much later, inimmigrants from Holland were upon their arrival welcomed in Dutch by the Reverend Isaac Wyckoff of New York, a descendant of one of the first settlers in Rensselaerwyck, who only in school had learned to speak English; and until very recently many communities in New Jersey adhered to the tradition of a monthly church service in Dutch.
As late as Dutch was still heard among the old people in the Ramapo Valley of that state.This is an essay about the continuing importance, for the Englishspeaking world, of Johan Huizinga’s innovative approach to cultural history, especially as articulated in his often cited (but rather less often read) work,Homo Ludens(first published in Dutch in , first English translation , first generally available edition ).¹.
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Challenges to the Dutch Republic - Prior to the ’s, the Dutch Republic was the wealthiest and most powerful province in Holland through Amsterdam, the leading force in trade and banking.