Sally Stubbs Running head: Complying with these rules and regulations includes practicing fair and factual reporting of financial records while using an ethical practices. Proper reporting of financial records reduces the risks of embezzlement and fraudulent wrong doing by the organization. There are many guidelines and elements that a manager can follow to ensure proper reporting practices and ethical behaviors.
Case 4 This article provides a brief overview of various definitions and activities of public health, normative concepts and principles integral to public health, and an introduction to several substantive ethical questions and tensions central to public health ethics.
The core of public health ethics concerns the moral justification of policies, programs, and the law to protect and promote public health. Because public health encompasses broad social programs and public policies, such as the provision of clean fluoridated water and bans on public smoking, questions regarding the justification of paternalistic interventions, fair distribution of health, and responsibility for health are prominent.
Discrete patient care interventions e. This article will provide some general guidance for health care providers. A list of references and other resources for public health can be found at the end of this article. What is public health?
There is no settled account or definition of public health. It has been defined numerous ways, reflecting the diverse contexts, activities, and interventions of public health.
A sampling of definitions, from general to more specific, include: What we, as a society, do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy Institute of Medicine The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organized efforts of society Faculty of Public Health of the Royal Colleges of the United Kingdom, as cited in Nuffield Bioethics Council Reportp.
A movement dedicated to the equitable improvement of health and wellbeing of communities with their full participation. Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of communities through education, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and research for disease and injury prevention Association of Schools of Public Health USA.
The key functions of public health agencies are assessing community health needs and marshalling the resources for responding to them, developing health policy in response to specific community and national health needs, and assuring that conditions contribute to good health, including high quality medical services, safe water supplies, good nutrition, unpolluted atmospheres and environments that offer opportunities for exercise and recreation are available to individuals World Medical Association What are social determinants of health?
As these accounts suggest, public health is distinct from medicine in several ways. To pursue these goals, public health must address a broad array of social conditions that extend beyond medical services. Since its inception, public health has recognized social conditions as basic causes of illness and disease.
The late twentieth century has witnessed renewed interest in social determinants as root causes of significant and widening disparities in health-both within and between countries Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, In the United States, disparities in life expectancy have worsened for men and women since Marmot, Belland examples of such disparities are often dramatic.
For example, the gap in left expectancy between men in Washington D. Such challenges in combination with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the late twentieth century Armstrong et al.
A journal dedicated to the topic-Public Health Ethics-was not established until What is Public Health Ethics? As with the concept of public health, there is no settled account of the moral concepts and methods of public health ethics. Systematic efforts to articulate ethical principles and frameworks to guide ethical inquiry in public health Kass ; Childress et al ; Roberts, Reich ; Upshur ; Powers, Faden ;The Nuffield Bioethics Council ; Daniels ; Arras, Fenton ; Bernheim et al.
Producing benefits, often but not exclusively health benefits, and often interpreted in health policy as a utilitarian commitment to maximizing aggregate health benefits Preventing harms, often health harms, such as preventable morbidity and premature death Distributing health benefits fairly, or distributive justice fair distribution of social goods Procedural justice fair processparticipation, and transparency Respecting individual autonomy and liberty of action Respecting and fulfilling universal human rights Respecting privacy and confidentiality Protecting non-dominant subgroups from marginalization and stigmatization Building and maintaining trust Much work needs to be done to translate these general ethical considerations or some subset of them into guiding principles and frameworks for public health policy and practice.
Such work entails defining them, determining their scope, specifying criteria for resolving conflicts among them, and so on. Such efforts have produced frameworks of unranked principles e. Such frameworks have counterparts in medical ethics, whose methods reflect a similar diversity See Bioethics Tools.
How does public health balance the interests of individuals with the interests of the broader public? Public health activities routinely bring some of these moral considerations into conflict. One major area of discourse and debate concerns the power of public health as an agent of the state to restrict individual choice in efforts to prevent disease and promote health.
Many public health activities try to influence individual actions, though they may do so in more or less restrictive ways.
Public health policy may eliminate choice altogether through, for example, compulsory quarantine of patients with infectious disease; restrict choice by, for example, banning smoking in public places or fluoridating public water supplies; guide choice through disincentives e.Examples of ethical standards of conduct and financial reporting practices will be explored and notated in this paper as well.
All of these points are important in the accounting practice of health care management to help the organizations run smoothly and to be financially stable%(1). Reporting Practices and Ethics Paper HCS/ - HEALTH CARE FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING Instructor: JOE GAZDIK AMANDA MOYER This preview has intentionally blurred sections%(1).
It also examines the ethical implications of reporting risks to the public. This work will be of interest to those studying communication, specifically in the areas of ethics in journalism and public health and medical regardbouddhiste.com: Jim Willis.
Reporting Practices and Ethics 4 current health care organizations that operate from HEALTH CAR HCS/ at University of Phoenix. Find two or three articles that address financial reporting practices and ethical standards in health care finance, including Generally accepted accounting principles and Corporate compliance, ethics.
The Belmont Report was written by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Commission, created as a result of the National Research Act of , was charged with identifying the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and developing guidelines to.