A colleague in some degree of shock sent this to me: In the deliberations of the Global Operations Review Committee, many issues have been examined which could have implications for the structure and governance of United Israel Appeal, Inc. It recommended that the current Board and Officers of UIA remain in place until the January meeting of the JFNA Board of Trustees, at which time it is likely that the final recommendations of the committee that are ultimately agreed upon will be presented to the JFNA board for formal action. At that point or during the few weeks prior, we will have an opportunity to decide on how best to respond to whatever decisions are taken.
Everything important that has happened to humans since the Paleolithic is due to environmental influences. History as a whole reflects these environmental differences and forces.
Culture is largely irrelevant: Diamond proceeds systematically through the main phases of history in all parts of the world and tries to show, with detailed arguments, how each phase, in each major region, is explainable largely by environmental forces.
The final outcome of these environmentally caused processes is the rise and dominance of Europe. The essential argument is very clear and simple. Almost all of history after the Ice Ages happened in the temperate midlatitudes of Eurasia. The natural environment of this large region is better for human progress than are the tropical environments of the world, and the other temperate or midlatitude regions -- South Africa, Australia, and midlatitude North and South America -- could not be central for human progress because they are much smaller than Eurasia and are isolated from it and from each other.
Although many civilizations arose and flourished in temperate Eurasia, only two were ultimately crucial, because of their especially favorable environments: Some years ago China's environment proved itself to be inferior to Europe's in several crucial ways.
Therefore Europe in the end was triumphant. Diamond distinguishes between the "ultimate factors" that explain "the broadest patterns of history" and the "proximate factors," which are effects of the "ultimate factors" and explain short-term and local historical processes.
The "ultimate" factors are environmental. The most important of these "ultimate" factors are the natural conditions that led to the rise of food production.
Those world regions that became agricultural very early gained a permanent advantage in history. The "ultimate" causes led, in much later times, to regional variations in technology, social organization, and health; these, then, were the "proximate" causes of modern history.
More than half of Guns, Germs, and Steel is devoted to elucidating the "ultimate" causes, explaining why differing environments led to differing rates in the acquisition of agriculture, and explaining how the resulting differences largely determined the "fate" his word of different peoples.
The "ultimate" causes are three primordial environmental facts: The first and most basic cause is the shape of the continents: Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas.
Eurasia has an east-west axis; the other two have north-south axes. This has had "enormous, sometimes tragic consequences" for human history p. Africa and the Americas were unable to progress throughout most of history because their "axes" are north-south, not east-west.
But Diamond is not really talking about axes; mostly he is making a rather subtle argument about the climatic advantages that in his view midlatitude regions have over tropical regions.
The world's largest continuous zone of "temperate" climates lies in a belt stretching across Eurasia from southern Europe in the west to China in the east.ACT Prep Book Test Prep Book & Practice Test Questions for the English, Math, Reading, Science, and Writing Sections of the ACT Exam.
There was a pretty massive shift in the s and s when northern Democrats starting supporting the civil rights movement (among other things). Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
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Legalizing Marijuana: Pros and Cons - The war on drugs is a movement of prohibition and military aid being undertaken by the United States government intended . In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure.
We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer.
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