Nowadays, cashew Anacardium occidentale L. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale.
Diseases of cashew nut plants Anacardium Occidentale L. January 28, Published: February 06, Correspondence: Adv Plants Agric Res.
The aim of this study was to inventory the diseases associated with the tree. Four major diseases were observed including anthracnose Colletotrichum gloeosporioidesPestalotia leaf spot Pestalotia heterocornisbacterial leaf and nut spot Xanthomonas citri pv.
The incidence of the diseases varied according to the locations; in addition, anthracnose was the most spread disease with high incidence. Gummosis was observed in all the locations and was the second threat to cashew production in South-West and West Center regions.
The bacterial disease which affects all parts of the cashew tree was mainly observed in the Hauts Bassins region. No virus was detected during this survey. Altogether, the results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Burkina Faso.
Moreover, the number of processing units is increasing year by year throughout the country. In addition to its socio-economic importance, cashew tree plays an environmental part.
It is used in afforestation schemes or as a fire protection barrier around forest demarcations. Unfortunately, cashew is threatened by many biotic and abiotic constraints resulting in significant yield losses. Among biotic constraints, diseases and pests are the most damaging and compromise the cashew nut yield in terms of quality and quantity.
Anthracnose foliar blight, fruit rot, gummosis of twigs and trunk are often considered as the most relevant diseases causing severe damages across cashew producing countries. Given this situation, the experience with diseases in other cashew producing countries e.
Unfortunately, despite the socio-economic and environmental importance of this tree crop, data on cashew pathogens are scarce in Burkina Faso.
Nonetheless, such country-specific data constitute, a prerequisite for the development of an efficient control strategy against the most economically important cashew diseases in the country. Since then, a broad approach that could accurately identify and analyse pathogens responsible for such diseases can contribute to design effective control measures.
The aim of the present study was to fill this gap by compiling an inventory of the diseases associated with different cropping stages of cashew in the main production areas in Burkina Faso. Material and methods Study areas The inventory of cashew diseases was done over two years from to in thirty orchards located in four major areas of cashew production in Burkina Faso.
Figure 1 The map of cashew diseases distribution in main production areas in Burkina Faso. Sampling of infected organs The sampling was performed in from july to september, in november in and mars in in orchards across the major production areas. Infected samples of twigs, leaves, flowers, and nuts were collected on ten trees chosen randomly following the diagonal of each orchard visited.
Five to ten orchards were surveyed in each locality. For each sample, a number, the locality name, sampling date and geographical coordinates were noted. Diseases incidence was assessed on twenty trees distant to 10 m, selected randomly according to the diagonal of orchard during the sampling.
Incidence was estimated following the formula: Pathogens isolation and characterization Isolation of fungi: After incubation, fungi with different shape were observed under binocular microscope.Epidemiology of cashew anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) in Mozambique M.E.R.
Sijaona, R.H. Reeder, J.M. WallerCashew leaf and nut blight – a new disease of cashew in Tanzania caused by Cryptosporiopsis spp. Plant Pathol., 55 (), p. Cryptosporiopsis spp Causing Cashew Blight Leaflets on the other plants of the same age were marked and inoculated with a conidial suspension of 10 6 ml-l on both sides.
The inoculated plants were covered with plastic bags and kept for 10 h under high humidity (99%) in the greenhouse. Inoculated leaves were stained with lactophenol.
Effect of environmental conditions on the growth of Cryptosporiopsis spp. causing leaf and nut blight on cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) Article Full-text available. Abstract. Coelomycetes is a general term for asexual fungi which includes many important pathogens and species also used in biocontrol, biotechnology and bioremediation.
Biology and Infection Mechanisms of Cryptosporiopsis spp Fungus Causing Blight Disease on Cashew (Anacardium Occidentale L.). Fig 1 Symptoms caused by Cryptosporiopsis sp. (cashew leaf and nut blight) a. Infected young tender cashew leaves with brown spots b.
Infected cashew young nuts c. Infection on cashew pseudo-fruit. Panicle emerging from surrounding infected cashew shoots.