The Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August was the last armed confrontation between Lancastrians and Yorkists, those two factions that had fought for decades in The Wars of the Roses. The Lancastrians triumphed under the leadership of a year-old exile named Henry Tudor. Thus, the two warring houses were joined in marriage. The union was both symbolic and necessary.
The History Learning Site, 16 Mar To establish full control over his kingdom, Henry VII had to establish his authority at a local level and especially on local government. At a local level both Henry and local magnates had a similar desire — to control the local Explain why henry vii reclaimed crown lands so that it was obedient, which would, in turn, ensure social stability.
The king communicated with them via a series of writs — written orders that were not open, kin theory, to interpretation. This arrangement worked when the kingdom was at peace. However, during the War of the Roses it completely broke down and after one of the major problems that faced Henry VII was asserting his authority at a local level after years of dislocation with regards to any form of authority.
Edward IV had used a system whereby he appointed certain favoured and loyal nobles to effectively govern at a local level on his behalf. This was reasonably successful but it led to a situation where certain nobles who felt that they had shown loyalty to the king believed that they were left out and had no chance of breaking into this inner circle.
These noble men became discontented and a potential source of trouble for Edward. When Henry became king, he recognised that the system used by Edward had its strengths in an era when communication was very slow and unreliable.
Henry only put his most trusted nobles in positions of power. Men such as these were trusted by Henry and knew the outcome if they showed any disloyalty to him. The Marquess of Dorset had been in control of south-west England but Henry could not trust him and the region was taken away from him.
There were also nobles who were on the edge of not being trusted. The Earl of Northumberland remained as Lieutenant of the North but had his powers curtailed. Surrey had no vested interest in the north and any power base that he might have created would have had to be built from scratch.
InSurrey himself was replaced by a council under the Archbishop of York. When the Duke of Bedford died he was also replaced by a council led by the Bishop of Lincoln who also had no power base in Wales.
The move away from one individual having control over a region was a shrewd move by Henry as no one individual had the opportunity to build a regional power base. Did he achieve this? Henry had little intention of doing what Edward IV had done — travelling around his kingdom adjudicating on issues as they arose.
Henry wanted to remain in London. Therefore he wanted to centralise government around himself. He wanted to extend his rule through the use of three things: The more efficient use of Crown lands would give Henry a greater income which he could use to enhance his authority.
His lands were also throughout his kingdom and if they were effectively run, this by itself would make the king the dominant authority in that region. By the reign of Henry VII, Justices of the Peace had superseded the local power of Sheriffs and were the chief local government officers.
They were also responsible for executing legislation that had been introduced in London. The most senior JP in a county was usually a bishop. It was at Quarter Sessions that serious court cases were dealt with. This would include everything except any cases involving treason.
An Assize Court was held in each county every six months.
These were controlled by judges under special commission from the Crown. It was also believed that merely being a JP was honour enough. In the past, members of a jury sympathetic to a local magnate had been used by that magnate to escape justice for offences committed.
Probably the greatest hold Henry had over a JP was the simple fact that they served for a year. He would then be put up for reappointment — something the king did.
Any JP who fell from grace would also fall from grace socially within his region as his failure to be reappointed would be seen as a sign of his incompetence. The king was also responsible for social advance and a successful and loyal JP could expect to advance up the social ladder if only by being awarded a title.
How did a JP extend his authority over his area? Each county was divided into hundreds and by law each hundred had to have a High Constable and every parish a Petty Constable. Punishment as this time was harsh even for petty crimes and many in rural England still poached as a way of getting sufficient food for their families.
The power of a JP was balanced however. However, the evidence does suggest that this form of appeal rarely happened.HENRY VII. King of England. Born: 28 Jan , Pembroke Castle, Wales. Acceded: 30 Oct , Westminster Abbey, London, England.
By this extension of Crown lands, and by their efficient administration, Henry increased their value, by . Henry VIII: Henry VIII, king of England there was never any chance of this happening, any more than there was of Henry’s election to the imperial crown, briefly mooted in when the emperor Maximilian I died, yet otherwise his regime observed the law of the land with painful particularity.
Formidable in appearance, in memory. He wanted to extend his rule through the use of three things: exploitation of Crown lands, more frequent use of the Royal Council and by increasing the power of Justices of the Peace.
The more efficient use of Crown lands would give Henry a greater income which he could use to enhance his authority. Before Henry VII, most of these attainders were later reversed in exchange for promises of loyalty: Henry VI reversed all 21 attainders, Edward IV 86 of , and Richard 99 of Henry VII attainted men, but was far slower in reversing them.
The estates of the houses of York and Lancaster, and of Warwick the Kingmaker, all fell to Henry VII. Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland died in leaving a child of eleven as his heir. Moreton Hall, begun by the Moreton family during the 15th Century Henry paid as much attention to crown lands - revenue from which went up about.
The more efficient use of Crown lands would give Henry a greater income which he could use to enhance his authority.
His lands were also throughout his kingdom and if they were effectively run, this by itself would make the king the dominant authority in that region.