Wernerab Show more Under a Creative Commons license open access Abstract The rate of interest — the price of money — is said to be a key policy tool. Economics has in general emphasised prices. This theoretical bias results from the axiomatic-deductive methodology centring on equilibrium.
Pulse Charging Overview Exploiting various phenomena of gas dynamics is an important means of achieving increases in charge density. A number of charging concepts and commercial devices have been developed that are based on gas dynamics: In high speed engines, resonance in the intake manifold can be exploited to achieve a supercharging effect at high engine speeds.
In lower speed engines, Helmholtz resonance can be exploited to achieve a similar effect. Pressure wave superchargers are devices that transfer energy from higher pressure exhaust gas to atmospheric pressure intake air through the use of shock waves to pressurize the intake air.
Air pulse valves placed in the intake manifold duct of each cylinder are fast responding valves that are intended to create and trap pressure pulses in part of the intake manifold and the cylinder to increase charge density.
Intake Manifold Resonance Charging The dynamics of pressure waves in the intake and exhaust manifolds at high-speed engines can be exploited to increase intake pressure without the use of a compressor  . In a four-stroke engine, individual ducts connect the intake manifold plenum to the intake ports of each cylinder.
The time for the wave to reach the plenum is: If the intake valve is still open when the pressure wave arrives and closes before the wave is reflected back again, volumetric efficiency can be boosted.
For this to occur, the entire wave travel, 2tw, must be shorter than the valve opening duration. Thus, at a given intake valve opening duration at a particular engine speed, the intake pipe must have a particular length to maximize volumetric efficiency.
Figure 1 illustrates the effect of intake pipe length on the volumetric efficiency at different engine speeds for a naturally aspirated spark ignition racing engine . Variation in Magnitude and Position of Volumetric Efficiency Peaks with Different Intake Pipe Lengths A few observations from Figure 1 are notable when considering the applicability of manifold tuning for diesel engines: In high reving engines, if intake manifold tuning is combined with exhaust manifold tuning, air delivery ratios of up to 1.
In some series production engines, this phenomenon is exploited with so-called variable intake systems where valves are used to open and close different length intake manifold runners at different engine speeds. Continuously adjustable length intake manifolds have also been developed that can increase volumetric efficiency over the entire full load speed range.relationship between exchange rates and the ISE index.
Çifter and Ozun  examine the impact of interest rate on stock returns using wavelet analysis with a Granger. The paper empirically analyzes the dynamic relationship between Renminbi (RMB) real effective exchange rate and stock price with VAR and multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models using monthly data from January to June Understanding the relationship between oil prices, exchange rates and emerging stock market prices is an important topic to study because as emerging economies continue to grow and prosper, they will exert a larger influence over the global economy.
The relationships between stock market capitalization rate and interest rate () studied the causal relationship between stock prices and exchange rates, using data from 23 February to 11 January for Turkey.
investigated the dynamic relationship between stocks and exchange rates for six Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia.
relationship between exchange rate misalignment and international trade (Staiger and Skyes, ). Of particular importance is the issue that part of the undervaluation or overvaluation of the. Box and Cox () developed the transformation.
Estimation of any Box-Cox parameters is by maximum likelihood. Box and Cox () offered an example in which the data had the form of survival times but the underlying biological structure was of hazard rates, and the transformation identified this.