A circle is one of the simplest shapes in Euclidian geometry. As a curve on which all points are equidistant from a center, a circle divides space into an interior and an exterior. Literary circles are often thought to work in much the same way, dividing those within a group from those who are most definitely out. Stressing the exclusiveness of literary circles in nineteenth-century America, David Dowling argues that its coteries "made every effort to assemble a unique collective identity to distinguish themselves from, and often in direct opposition to, others in the literary market" Dowling, 2.
Professional Learning Background Essay on Late 19th and Early 20th Century Immigration This summary of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century immigration describes the "new immigration" that originated from Southern and Eastern Europe.
The essay also outlines American responses to the new wave of immigration, including some of the laws designed to restrict immigration that were adopted between and Between andalmost fifteen million immigrants entered the United States, a number which dwarfed immigration figures for previous periods.
Unlike earlier nineteenth century immigration, which consisted primarily of immigrants from Northern Europe, the bulk of the new arrivals hailed mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe.
These included more than two and half million Italians and approximately two million Jews from Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as many Poles, Hungarians, Austrians, Greeks, and others.
A growing chorus of voices sought legislative restrictions on immigration. A second Immigration Act in expanded these categories to include polygamists and those sick with contagious diseases, and established a Bureau of Immigration to administer and enforce the new restrictions.
In accordance with the law, the federal immigration station at Ellis Island included facilities for medical inspections and a hospital. While business and financial interests occasionally defended unrestricted immigration, viewing a surplus of cheap labor as essential to industry and westward expansion, calls for measures restricting the flow of the new immigrants continued to grow.
Although President Grover Cleveland vetoed an law proposing a literacy test for prospective immigrants, further restrictions on immigration continued to be added. Following the assassination of President William McKinley in by the anarchist Leon Czolgosz, xenophobia and hysteria about political radicalism led to the Anarchist Exclusion Act, which excluded would-be immigrants on the basis of their political beliefs.
Inimmigration at Ellis Island reached its peak with 1, immigrants arriving. That same year, Congress authorized the Dillingham Commission to investigate the origins and consequences of contemporary immigration. The Commission concluded that immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe posed a serious threat to American society and recommended that it be greatly curtailed in the future, proposing as the most efficacious remedy a literacy test similar to the one President Cleveland had vetoed in Resources for Teachers, accessed November 29,https:By the end of the nineteenth century, photography became even more accessible to the average person.
George Eastman founded the Kodak company, which sold mass-produced cameras that came pre-loaded with a strip of film capable of exposures. 19th and 20th Century Us Expansionism Compared to Past Expansionism. From the beginning of its time, America has held the desire to expand.
Manifest Destiny, the belief that the United States has a mission to spread its beliefs and culture, had held true since the formation of the country/5(1). Atlantic Bonds: A Nineteenth-Century Odyssey from America to Africa (H.
Eugene and Lillian Youngs Lehman Series) [Lisa A. Lindsay] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A decade before the American Civil War, James Churchwill Vaughan (–) set out to fulfill his formerly enslaved father's dying wish that he should leave America to start a new life in regardbouddhiste.coms: 2.
Nineteenth century Most Protestant, as well as Catholic, denominations opened small colleges in the nineteenth century, mostly after   Nearly all taught in the English language, although there were a few German language seminaries and colleges. Toward an Understanding of Metropolitan America: Report of the Social Science Panel on the Significance of Community in the Metropolitan Environment of the Advisory Committee to the Dept.
of Housing and Urban Development, Assembly of Behavioral and Socia () Chapter: Twentieth Century Metropolitanization. States of America Michael G. Watt Article published in IARTEM e-Journal, 2: 1 () Research comparing the free textbooks to the state level increased during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, but at different rates.
The increase was greater.