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Such institutional support may include government recognition or designation; presentation as being the "correct" form of a language in schools; published grammars, dictionaries, and textbooks that set forth a correct spoken and written form; and an extensive formal literature that employs that dialect prose, poetry, non-fiction, etc.
There may be multiple standard dialects associated with a single language. A nonstandard dialectlike a standard dialect, has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntaxbut is usually not the beneficiary of institutional support.
The Dialect Test was designed by Joseph Wright to compare different English dialects with each other. Dialect or language[ edit ] See also: Abstand and ausbau languages and A language is a dialect with an army and navy There is no universally accepted criterion for distinguishing two different languages from two dialects i.
The position that Costa Rican linguists support depends upon which University they represent. The most common, and most purely linguistic, criterion is that of mutual intelligibility: However, this definition becomes problematic in the case of dialect continuain which it may be the case that dialect B is mutually intelligible with both dialect A and dialect C but dialects A and C are not mutually intelligible with each other.
In this case, the criterion of mutual intelligibility makes it impossible to decide whether A and C are dialects of the same language or not.
The mutual intelligibility criterion also flounders in cases in which a speaker of dialect X can understand a speaker of dialect Y, but not vice versa.
Sociolinguistic definitions[ edit ] Local varieties in the West Germanic dialect continuum are oriented towards either Standard Dutch or Standard German depending on which side of the border they are spoken.
According to this definition, two varieties are considered dialects of the same language if under at least some circumstances they would defer to the same authority regarding some questions about their language.
For instance, to learn the name of a new invention, or an obscure foreign species of plant, speakers of Westphalian and East Franconian German might each consult a German dictionary or ask a German-speaking expert in the subject.
Thus these varieties are said to be dependent on, or heteronomous with respect to, Standard Germanwhich is said to be autonomous. In contrast, speakers in the Netherlands of Low Saxon varieties similar to Westphalian would instead consult a dictionary of Standard Dutch.
Similarly, although Yiddish is classified by linguists as a language in the Middle High German group of languages, a Yiddish speaker would consult a different dictionary in such a case.
Within this framework, W. Stewart defined a language as an autonomous variety together with all the varieties that are heteronomous with respect to it, noting that an essentially equivalent definition had been stated by Charles A.
Ferguson and John J. To describe this situation, the editors of the Handbook of African Languages introduced the term dialect cluster.
Dialect clusters were treated as classificatory units at the same level as languages. As a result of this, in some contexts, the term "dialect" refers specifically to varieties with low social status.
In this secondary sense of "dialect", language varieties are often called dialects rather than languages: The status of "language" is not solely determined by linguistic criteria, but it is also the result of a historical and political development. Romansh came to be a written language, and therefore it is recognized as a language, even though it is very close to the Lombardic alpine dialects.
An opposite example is the case of Chinesewhose variations such as Mandarin and Cantonese are often called dialects and not languages in China, despite their mutual unintelligibility.
Modern nationalismas developed especially since the French Revolutionhas made the distinction between "language" and "dialect" an issue of great political importance.
A group speaking a separate "language" is often seen as having a greater claim to being a separate "people", and thus to be more deserving of its own independent state, while a group speaking a "dialect" tends to be seen not as "a people" in its own right, but as a sub-group, part of a bigger people, which must content itself with regional autonomy.
The significance of the political factors in any attempt at answering the question "what is a language? This is illustrated by the frequency with which the army-navy aphorism is cited.
Terminology[ edit ] By the definition most commonly used by linguists, any linguistic variety can be considered a "dialect" of some language—"everybody speaks a dialect".
According to that interpretation, the criteria above merely serve to distinguish whether two varieties are dialects of the same language or dialects of different languages. The terms "language" and "dialect" are not necessarily mutually exclusive, although it is often perceived to be.
There are various terms that linguists may use to avoid taking a position on whether the speech of a community is an independent language in its own right or a dialect of another language. Perhaps the most common is " variety ";  " lect " is another.
A more general term is "languoid", which does not distinguish between dialects, languages, and groups of languages, whether genealogically related or not.The Do You Speak American?curriculum was made possible, in part, by a grant from Carnegie Corporation of New York.
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In southern Spanish dialects and in those Hispanic American dialects strongly influenced by southern settlers (e.g. Caribbean Spanish), rather than the velar fricative [x], the result was a softer glottal sound [h], like English h in hope.
Dialect: Dialect, a variety of a language that signals where a person comes from. The notion is usually interpreted geographically (regional dialect), but it also has some application in relation to a person’s social background (class dialect) or occupation (occupational dialect).
The word dialect comes. Regardless how one defines them, dialects are fascinating and relevant to the general study of language differences. Why They Matter. Research in dialects helps scientists understand the fundamental principles that underlie language differences, language innovation and . Are Dialects Just as Acceptable in Public PlacesAre Dialects Just as Acceptable in Public PlacesNowadays, most of Chinese people communicate with each other in Mandarin and the government also encourages speak Mandarin in public places.
Slang—just as a professional dialect—is used mainly by persons who are in a sense bidialectal; i.e., they speak some other dialect or the standard language, in addition to slang. Dialectal differences also often run parallel with the religious or racial division of the population.