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Assessment and the evaluation of obesity prevention and management programs Created: This document presents the work of the expert group convened by Inserm in the context of the collective expert procedure to respond to the request from the Parliamentary Office for Evaluation of Health Policies Opeps regarding the assessment of the programs for obesity management and prevention in France.
The study took account of a document base of articles and documents available as at the first quarter, The Inserm collective expert review center coordinated the collective expert review. As in other European countries and the United States, the trend concerns the whole population but more frequently families with low incomes.
The consequences of that trend with regard to health are becoming worrying and have economic impacts. In order to combat the epidemic, measures were defined a few years ago by international WHOEuropean and French organizations.
The combat against obesity has involved the highest political authorities in France. The French Parliamentary Office for Evaluation of Health Policies Opeps requested an assessment of obesity and an evaluation of the programs set up in France in the fields of obesity prevention, screening and treatment.
Inserm responded to that call by setting up a pluri-disciplinary group of experts under the collective expert review procedure. The group's mission was to respond to the various aspects of the request. The expert group's proceedings were structured by a set of questions drawn up on the basis of the specifications and addressing the epidemiological situation, economic implications, preventive strategies, healthcare system organization, French and international initiatives and their impact, and the role of research.
The objective of this report is to supply the Parliamentary Office for Evaluation of Health Policies with a review of the scientific arguments and public health strategies on which obesity prevention and treatment operations are based.
The following have been analyzed: Since obesity is a multifactorial disease that is largely dependent on the environment and behaviors, the expert review aimed to position the socioeconomic issues raised by obesity prevention and treatment.
The assessment mainly addresses the design and implementation of various programs, in particular with regard to the time course of the concepts underlying those programs.
The orientations, prospects and limitations of the operations implemented at international, European and local level were elucidated in the course of several hearings.
The expert group has submitted, as a final synthesis, the main findings and principles of the operations as defined by the collective review. It is to be noted that the evaluation of the impact of those programs on health at the individual and population levels is premature since those programs were only initiated recently less than 5 years ago.
Epidemiological data It is currently firmly established that obesity, i. This phenomenon may be clearly demonstrated for both adults and children by the increase in the body weight of our contemporaries for a given gender, age and height. The evidence is so striking that the health authorities became aware of it at the end of the last century WHO, Mobilization in most Western countries resulted.
However, the in-depth understanding of the causes of the phenomenon and rational assessment of its consequences in terms of individual and collective health are far from perfect. In parallel with the public health measures to be taken to halt the progression, progress in our understanding of the phenomenon is necessary.
The epidemiological context of the combat against obesity is reviewed in this chapter. An attempt is made to indicate the limitations and interpretation difficulties of the reported findings. The prevalence of obesity and, above all, its recent progression are discussed, as are the current data on the public health consequences, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease and mortality.
Special attention is paid to the role of socioeconomic factors as determinants of obesity in the population.
Prevalence of adult overweight and obesity Individual corpulence measurement is an essential biometric parameter. It is appropriate to distinguish between the overall indices that, for each gender, are only a function of body weight Wheight H and possibly age, from the combinations of more specific anthropometric measurements skinfolds, circumferences, diameters, etc.
The generalized use of the BMI as a body mass indicator, in particular in epidemiology, is due to its great simplicity of determination together with two properties that have been approximately verified on adult populations.
However, BMI has a low individual predictive value. It is more appropriate for population studies than for clinical use. The mean BMI of a population and the percentage of subjects with BMI values greater than certain cutoffs enable characterization of corpulence distribution in the population.
Finer categories have been proposed Visscher et al. The two prevalences obviously depend on the population under study and particularly on age and gender.
It should be stressed that those definitions, which are based, as will be seen, on epidemiological observation, do not reflect natural subpopulations and are to be treated with caution at individual level. The prevalence of excess weight and obesity in adults in France has markedly increased over the last ten years.
The ObEpi survey conducted by telephone inand Charles and Basdevant, showed that the prevalence of obesity increased from 8. An annual survey employing similar methodology and conducted on the US population aged over 18 years Mokdad et al.
The prevalence of obesity in France in was thus the same as that in the United States in Repeated epidemiological surveys with measurement of the weight and height of subjects in representative national samples are only available for a few countries.Introduction Nestlé is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Switzerland.
It is the largest food company in the world measured by revenues and other metrics. Nestlé’s products include baby food, medical food, bottled water, breakfast cereals, coffee and tea, confectionery, dairy products, ice cream, frozen food, pet foods, and snacks.
Perhaps Food Safety News will received a more thoughtful, reasoned piece arguing against the merits of GMO labeling, and those of us who want to do more than rant, will be more welcome.
LouWho I. In , a British citizen organization published “The Baby Killer,” a pamphlet that documented Swiss-based food company Nestlé’s aggressive international .
O Scribd é o maior site social de leitura e publicação do mundo. INTRODUCTION Nestle S.A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company and its headquarters is in Nestle S.A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company and its . Maggi noodles are instant noodles sold by Swiss transnational food company Nestlé and have cemented themselves as the sole market leader in India for the consumption of this food product, commanding 42% of retail value share in the last year (Euromonitor).